UNHCR WASH Manual – Preliminary Version (UNHCR, 2015)

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The UNHCR WASH Manual (2015) should be used by WASH actors as the main source of general guidelines for WASH interventions in refugee settings. Specific guidelines can be found on the following sections.

1.0 WASH PRINCIPLES WASH Manual Section
Guidelines for Saving Lives 1.3 – 1.6
Guidelines for Safety and Protection of Refugees 1.10 – 1.13
Guidelines for Physical Safety of WASH Infrastructure 1.17
Guidelines for Working with WASH Service Providers and Regulatory Authorities 1.20 – 1.22
Guidelines for Consultation, Participation and Cultural Norms 1.25 – 1.29
Guidelines for Universal Access and Disability 1.36 – 1.46 and 1.50 – 1.54
Guidelines for Equitable Access 1.48 – 1.49
Guidelines for Use of Appropriate Technology and Cost Effectiveness 1.55 – 1.68
Guidelines for Capacity Building of WASH Stakeholders 1.71 – 1.75
Guidelines for WASH Infrastructure Quality 1.76
Guidelines for a Comprehensive Approach to WASH Service Provision 1.77 – 1.80
Guidelines for WASH in Urban Settings 1.81 – 1.85
Guidelines for WASH Strategy Documents and Operational Plans 1.87 – 1.90
Guidelines for Monitoring and Accountability 1.91 – 1.92
Guidelines for Protection of the Environment 1.93 – 1.111
2.0 PUBLIC HEALTH WASH Manual Section
Guidelines for WASH and Public Health 2.1 – 2.5
Guidelines for WASH Epidemic Preparedness and Response 2.18 – 2.27
3.0 WATER SUPPLY WASH Manual Section
Guidelines for Water Quantity 3.8 – 3.13
Guidelines for Water Quality 3.14 – 3.16, and 3,98 - 3.101
Guidelines for Chlorination of Water Supplies 3.91 – 3.95
Guidelines for Water Quality Testing Equipment 3.108
Guidelines for Water Safety Plans 3.110 – 3-113
Guidelines for Water Prospection and Evaluation 3.46 – 3.61
Guidelines for Water Abstraction 3.62 – 3.84
Guidelines for Water Source Protection 3.85 – 3.90
Guidelines for Bulk Water Treatment 3.115 – 3.163
Guidelines for Bulk Water Storage 3.184 – 3.191
Guidelines for Bulk Water Distribution 3.192 – 3.210
Guidelines for Household Water Storage 3.17 – 3.19
Guidelines for Household Water Treatment 3.164 – 3.183
Guidelines for Water Accessibility and the Burden of Collection 3.24 – 3.26
Guidelines for Refugee Site Selection 3.21 and 3.46
Guidelines for Reliability, Backup Supplies and Reserve Capacity 3.114
Guidelines for Bathing and Laundering Facilities 1.3
Guidelines for Management and Reuse of Wastewater 3.205
Guidelines for Water for Livestock, Agriculture and Livelihood Activities 3.13
4.0 EXCRETA MANAGEMENT WASH Manual Section
Guidelines for an Environment Free From Human Faeces 4.6 – 4.9
Guidelines for the Immediate Prevention of Contamination of Water Supplies from Human Excreta 4.10 – 4.11
Guidelines for the Assessment of Public Health Risks at Every Step in the Excreta Management Chain 4.23
Guidelines for Transition to Household or Shared Toilets as Quickly as Possible 4.12
Guidelines for Toilet Coverage Guidance 4.17 – 4.18
Guidelines for Locating of Communal Toilets 1.32
Guidelines for Gender Segregation 4.2
Guidelines for Water for Flushing and Anal Cleansing Materials 4.142
Guidelines for Excreta Management Technology Selection 4.24 – 4.27
Guidance for Design Life Spans for Excreta Management Systems 4.28
Guidelines for Ensuring Toilet Construction Quality 4.29
Guidelines for Household Toilet Construction 4.30 – 4.31
Guidelines for Household Toilet Tools and Equipment 4.15
Guidelines for Host Communities 4.32 – 4.33
Guidelines for Community Led Total Sanitation in Refugee Settings 4.34 – 4.35
Guidelines for Excreta Management in Difficult Environments 4.36 – 4.42
Guidelines for Handwashing Facilities 4.122 – 4.131
Guidelines for Arrangements for Cleaning and Maintenance 4.132 – 4.144
Guidelines for Monitoring of Toilet Coverage and Condition 4.141
Guidelines for Communal Toilets Exit Strategy 4.145
5.0 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT WASH Manual Section
Guidelines for Environment Free From Waste 5.1 – 5.11
Guidelines for Waste Surveys 5.25 – 5.31
Guidelines for Waste Storage and Collection Services 5.10, 5.66 – 5.88
Guidelines for Waste Transportation 5.89 – 5.113
Guidelines for Waste Disposal 5.114 – 5.133
Guidelines for Management of Hazardous Domestic Wastes 5.37
Guidelines for Management of Medical Wastes in Refugee Settings 5.134
Guidelines for Management of Market Wastes and Abattoirs 5.42, 5.56, and 5.87
Guidelines for Programmes of Waste Recycling, Reduction and Reuse 5.42, 5.56, and 5.88
Guidelines for Waste Management in Urban Settings 5.16, 5.21, 5.69, 5.74, and 5.88
Guidelines for Sanitary Landfills 5.116 – 5.131
Guidelines for Waste Incineration 5.132
6.0 DISEASE VECTOR CONTROL WASH Manual Section
Guidelines for Site Selection to Reduce the Risk of Disease Vectors 6.7
Guidelines for Essential Disease Vector Control Messages 6.9
Guidelines for Essential Disease Vector Control Household Items 6.1
Guidelines for Disease Vector Control Chemical Safety 6.14
Guidelines for Disease Vector Control Coordination with Local Authorities 6.15
Guidelines for Control of Mosquitoes 6.18 – 6.23
Guidelines for Control of Flies 6.24 – 27
Guidelines for Control of Fleas 6.28 – 6.32
Guidelines for Control of Lice 6.33
Guidelines for Control of Mites 6.34
Guidelines for Control of Rodents 6.35 – 6.36
7.0 HYGIENE PROMOTION WASH Manual Section
Guidelines for Coordination of Hygiene Activities Between the Community Health, Nutrition, HIV/AIDS, Education and Community Services Programmes 7.4 – 7.6
Guidelines for Using Hygiene Promotion as an Effective Method of Community Mobilisation 7.7
Guidelines for Essential Household Hygiene Related Non-Food Items 7.10 – 7.16
Guidelines for Immediate Dissemination of Key Hygiene Messages 7.17 – 7.19
Guidelines for the Assessment of High Risk Groups and High Risk Hygiene Behaviour Practices 7.2
Guidelines for Ensuring Women’s Menstrual Hygiene Needs are Met 7.21 - 22
Guidelines for Hygiene Promotion Approaches and Strategies in Refugee Settings 7.24 – 7.46
Guidelines for Monitoring Hygiene Promotion Programmes and the Use of Hygiene Promotion Strategies 7.47
8.0 WASH PROGRAME MANAGEMENT WASH Manual Section
Guidelines for Recruitment and Training of WASH Personnel 8.4 – 8.5
Guidelines for Procurement of WASH Equipment and Supplies 8.6 – 8.8
Guidelines for the Assessment of WASH Related Health and Safety Risks 8.9 – 8.11
Guidelines for the Provision of Personal Protective Equipment and Training 8.12 – 8.17
Guidelines for WASH Services Provision in Refugee Settings 8.18 – 8.19
Guidelines for the Organisation of WASH Teams 8.21 – 8.24
Guidelines for the Capacity Building of WASH Personnel 8.25 – 8.26
Guidelines for the Operation and Maintenance of WASH Infrastructure 8.27 - 36
Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance Plans and Strategies 8.37
9.0 WASH ASSESSMENTS WASH Manual Section
Guidelines for Coordination of WASH Assessments in Refugee Settings 9.1 – 9.6
General Principles for WASH Assessments in Refugee Settings 9.7 – 9.8
Guidelines for WASH Assessment Preparation 9.14 – 9.16
Guidelines for Assessment Team Composition 9.17 – 9.19
Guidelines for the Identification of WASH Assessment Locations 9.22 – 9.24
Guidelines for Key Informant Interviews 9.26
Guidelines for Focus Groups 9.27
Guidelines for Observation Walks 9.28
Guidelines for Assessment of Existing WASH Infrastructure 9.29 – 9.31
Guidelines for the Assessment of Water Availability 9.32
Guidelines for Household Surveys 9.33 – 9.35
Guidelines for the Assessment of Existing WASH Implementation Arrangements 9.36
Guidelines for Rapid and Comprehensive WASH Assessments 9.37
Guidelines for the Assessment of Existing WASH Legislation 9.38
Guidelines for the Institutional Capacity Assessments 9.39 – 9.41
Guidelines for WASH Analysis and Assessment Reports 9.43 – 9.47
10. WASH MONITORING AND REPORTING WASH Manual Section
Guidelines for the Establishment and Routine Monitoring of WASH Indicators 10.4 – 10.8
Guidelines for Monitoring and Reporting of WASH Programme Efficiency 10.16 – 10.20
Guidelines for Monitoring of the Effectiveness of WASH Interventions Through the Use of Annual KAP Surveys 10.13 – 10.14
Practical Guidance for WASH Monitoring 10.9 – 10.15
Practical Guidance for WASH Reporting 10.21 – 10.26
11.0 WASH COORDINATION WASH Manual Section
Guidelines for Immediate Establishment of Sector Coordination Arrangements 11.1 – 11.8
Guidelines for Establishing Agreed Common WASH Indicators, Standards, and Approaches. 11.11 – 11.13
Guidelines for the Establishment of WASH Technical Working Groups 11.15 – 11.16
Guidelines for the Establishment of a WASH Advisory Group 11.24
Guidelines for Common Analysis of WASH Needs and Gaps At the National, Subnational and Site Levels (Baseline Assessment) 11.8 – 11.10
Guidelines for Establishment of a Common Sector Tor and Response Plan/Strategy At the National, Sub-National and Site Levels 11.21 – 11.22
Guidelines for Establishment of Common Monitoring and Reporting 11.13
Guidelines for Coordinated Sector Preparedness and Contingency Planning 11.27 – 11.28
Guidelines for the Provision of Dedicated WASH Sector Coordination Resources 11.25 – 11.26
Guidelines for the Capture and Application of Lessons Learned and Best Practice 11.29
Guidelines for Monitoring the Quality of Sector Coordination and Performance 11.3

Please note that this version is a preliminary first draft and if you have any comments, additions, corrections, or suggestions for improvement they can be added to the UNHCR WASH Manual WIKI which can be accessed HERE.


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