WASH RESEARCH REPORTS

UDDT-Implementing Urine Diversion Dry Toilets in Dolo Addo, Ethiopia

Implementing Urine Diversion Dry Toilets in Dolo Addo, Ethiopia (UNHCR, OXFAM GB and CDC, 2014)


The choice of sanitation technology in humanitarian crisis is based on various factors including the terrain, social and cultural norms and agency experience. There is the continued need for humanitarian response mechanisms to factor the environmental impact and sustainability of the technologies used in the provision of safe water supply and sanitation to affected communities. The acceptability of using ecological sanitation technologies such as Urine Diversion Dry Toilets (UDDT) in refugee contexts needs significant exploration. Using refugee camps in Dollo Ado as a case study, this paper outlines how the UDDT technology has been implemented in the context of protracted refugee camps, the successes and the areas needing further exploration to make it better able to be adopted across various refugee programmes and contexts.


Decay of Chlorine, (Berkeley University and UNHCR, 2014)

Decay of Chlorine: Building the Evidence Base for Humanitarian Safe Water Supply, (Berkeley University and UNHCR, 2014)


Current emergency safe water guidelines are based on little field evidence. We launched an observational study on chlorine decay in the Azraq refugee camp, Jordan in July-August 2014 in order to: i) develop evidence-based guidelines for centralized batch chlorination in humanitarian operations; and ii) identify factors affecting the safe water chain. This study builds on earlier work from South Sudan and adds to the evidence base that study initiated.


Towards sustainable groundwater

Sustainable Groundwater Management for Refugee Camps in Dadaab, Kenya (UNHCR and Université de Neuchâtel, 2013)


Close to half a million refugees live in Dadaab, Kenya and rely on groundwater from the Merti Aquifer. Preliminary hydrogeological mapping indicates over exploitation of the fresh water aquifer could result in salt water intrusion, which would put the security of water supply for the refugee camps and host population at risk. UNHCR together with University of Neuchâtel has embarked on a comprehensive study of the Merti Aquifer including remote monitoring, and numerical modelling of the aquifer in order to develop a sustainable groundwater management plan for the aquifer which supplies water to all the refugee camps in Dadaab, Kenya.


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Improving Sanitation in Refugee Camps (UNHCR and Boston Consulting Group, 2015)


The report examines the feasibility of a wide range of standard sanitation technologies in addition to sanitation innovations in refugee contexts (including miniaturized biogas, reinvented toilets, new processor technologies, SMS dispatching, pay per use toilets, sale of by-products). Technologies were evaluated based on upfront investment cost; technology viability, suitable size and transportability; flexibility and resilience; and value for money.


Costing Water Services IRC

Costing Water Services in a Refugee Context (IRC and UNHCR, 2015)


This report presents a methodology to cost water services that has been adapted from the life-cycle costs approach (LCCA) and looks at its applicability to refugee settings.