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UNHCR UDDT SOPs

Double vault Urine Diversion Dry Toilets (UDDT) can be used as an alternative to pit latrines in refugee camps. They utilise two chambers for faeces, one of which is in use whilst the other is full and drying so that it can be safely disposed of after an appropriate period of time.
These Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) were developed by Oxfam under UNHCR’s “Waste to Value” Project, which was funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. They are largely based on UDDTs developed under the Waste to Value Project in Ethiopia. 

Emergency Sanitation (WEDC, 2002)

The book Emergency Sanitation: Assessment and programme design has been produced to assist those involved in planning and implementing emergency sanitation programmes. The main focus of the book is a systematic and structured approach to assessment and programme design. It provides a balance between the hardware (technical) and software (socio-cultural, institutional) aspects of sanitation programmes, and links short-term emergency response to long-term sustainability. The book is relevant to a wide range of emergency situations, including both natural and conflict-induced disasters, and open and closed settings. It is suitable for field technicians, engineers and hygiene promoters, as well as staff at agency headquarters.

    Excreta Disposal in Emergencies – A Field Manual (WEDC, 2007)

    The purpose of the manual is to provide practical guidance on how to select, design, construct and maintain appropriate excreta disposal systems in emergency situations. Relevant situations include natural disasters, relief for refugees and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), and complex emergencies, focusing on rural and peri-urban areas. The manual presents a process, which can be followed to assess the current excreta disposal needs and priorities, and to design an appropriate programme to respond to those needs. It can also be used to select appropriate excreta disposal technologies, systems, and hygiene promotion interventions. The manual provides guidance on how to plan, design and construct systems, and how to maintain and promote appropriate use of those systems.

    DG-400 Design Guidelines for Toilets in Refugee Settings (UNHCR, 2015)

    This document contains guidelines for toilets in refugee settings including: site selection; prevention of surface or ground water contamination; pit reinforcement; toilet slab strength; toilet slab anchorage; sanitary sealing; use of plastic sheeting; toilet doors; privacy walls; vector control measures; rain and stormwater protection; wash block accessories; collection of anal cleansing and sanitary materials; material specifications; handwashing stations design considerations; and environmental considerations for sourcing wood .

    Implementing Urine Diversion Dry Toilets in Dolo Addo, Ethiopia (UNHCR, OXFAM GB and CDC, 2014)

    The choice of sanitation technology in humanitarian crisis is based on various factors including the terrain, social and cultural norms and agency experience. There is the continued need for humanitarian response mechanisms to factor the environmental impact and sustainability of the technologies used in the provision of safe water supply and sanitation to affected communities. The acceptability of using ecological sanitation technologies such as Urine Diversion Dry Toilets (UDDT) in refugee contexts needs significant exploration. Using refugee camps in Dollo Ado as a case study, this paper outlines how the UDDT technology has been implemented in the context of protracted refugee camps, the successes and the areas needing further exploration to make it better able to be adopted across various refugee programmes and contexts.

    Improving Sanitation in Refugee Camps (UNHCR and Boston Consulting Group, 2015)

    The report examines the feasibility of a wide range of standard sanitation technologies in addition to sanitation innovations in refugee contexts (including miniaturized biogas, reinvented toilets, new processor technologies, SMS dispatching, pay per use toilets, sale of by-products). Technologies were evaluated based on upfront investment cost; technology viability, suitable size and transportability; flexibility and resilience; and value for money.

    F-901/2015a UNHCR Excreta Management Assessment Tool (UNHCR, 2015)

    This assessment tool has been designed to assist UNHCR and WASH actors collect data on excreta management during a needs assessment. The main purpose of this tool is to identify problems related to excreta management and identify actions to bring conditions to UNHCR standards.