Emergency Sanitation (WEDC, 2002)

The book Emergency Sanitation: Assessment and programme design has been produced to assist those involved in planning and implementing emergency sanitation programmes. The main focus of the book is a systematic and structured approach to assessment and programme design. It provides a balance between the hardware (technical) and software (socio-cultural, institutional) aspects of sanitation programmes, and links short-term emergency response to long-term sustainability. The book is relevant to a wide range of emergency situations, including both natural and conflict-induced disasters, and open and closed settings. It is suitable for field technicians, engineers and hygiene promoters, as well as staff at agency headquarters.

    Excreta Disposal in Emergencies – A Field Manual (WEDC, 2007)

    The purpose of the manual is to provide practical guidance on how to select, design, construct and maintain appropriate excreta disposal systems in emergency situations. Relevant situations include natural disasters, relief for refugees and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), and complex emergencies, focusing on rural and peri-urban areas. The manual presents a process, which can be followed to assess the current excreta disposal needs and priorities, and to design an appropriate programme to respond to those needs. It can also be used to select appropriate excreta disposal technologies, systems, and hygiene promotion interventions. The manual provides guidance on how to plan, design and construct systems, and how to maintain and promote appropriate use of those systems.

    D-403/2015a Household Toilet and Bathing Unit (Domed Slab, Alternating Pit, Raised Pit) Design and BoQ (UNHCR, 2015)

    This document contains documentation to help UNHCR and WASH actors build household toilet and bathing units (domed slab) in refugee settings. The package includes: Technical Drawings; Step by Step Construction Drawings; Bills of Quantity; Material and Workmanship Specifications; and Design Calculations.

    DG-400 Design Guidelines for Toilets in Refugee Settings (UNHCR, 2015)

    This document contains guidelines for toilets in refugee settings including: site selection; prevention of surface or ground water contamination; pit reinforcement; toilet slab strength; toilet slab anchorage; sanitary sealing; use of plastic sheeting; toilet doors; privacy walls; vector control measures; rain and stormwater protection; wash block accessories; collection of anal cleansing and sanitary materials; material specifications; handwashing stations design considerations; and environmental considerations for sourcing wood .

    Improving Sanitation in Refugee Camps (UNHCR and Boston Consulting Group, 2015)

    The report examines the feasibility of a wide range of standard sanitation technologies in addition to sanitation innovations in refugee contexts (including miniaturized biogas, reinvented toilets, new processor technologies, SMS dispatching, pay per use toilets, sale of by-products). Technologies were evaluated based on upfront investment cost; technology viability, suitable size and transportability; flexibility and resilience; and value for money.

    F-901/2015a UNHCR Excreta Management Assessment Tool (UNHCR, 2015)

    This assessment tool has been designed to assist UNHCR and WASH actors collect data on excreta management during a needs assessment. The main purpose of this tool is to identify problems related to excreta management and identify actions to bring conditions to UNHCR standards.